Despite attempts to harmonize access to medicines for patients in Europe by numerous organizations including the European Commission, EUnetHTA, industry organizations, and patient groups, heterogeneity in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) evaluation of medicines across Member States continues to create inconsistent access decisions. The objective of the Issue Panel was to discuss where convergence efforts should be focused, and what level of harmonisation might be viable from the perspective of Member State autonomy. An analysis of the extent of HTA convergence in Europe provided context for the session, followed by both Industry and Member State views on convergence and cooperation on HTA.